Young Samurai The Ring Of Sky Epub Free 23
HAL QCD method is a method to construct a potential (HAL QCD potential) that reproduces the NN scattering phase shift faithful to the QCD. The HAL QCD potential is obtained from QCD by eliminating the degrees of freedom of quarks and gluons and leaving only two particular hadrons. Therefor, in the effective quantum mechanics of two nucleons defined by HAL QCD potential, the conserved current consists not only of the nucleon current but also an extra current originating from the potential (two-body current). Though the form of the two-body current is closely related to the potential, it is not straight forward to extract the former from the latter. In this work, we derive the the current matrix element formula in the quantum mechanics defined by the HAL QCD potential. As a first step, we focus on the non-relativistic case. To give an explicit example, we consider a second quantized non-relativistic two-channel coupling model which we refer to as the original model. From the original model, the HAL QCD potential for the open channel is constructed by eliminating the closed channel in the elastic two-particle scattering region. The current matrix element formula is derived by demanding the effective quantum mechanics defined by the HAL QCD potential to respond to the external field in the same way as the original two-channel coupling model.
Young Samurai The Ring Of Sky Epub Free 23
Abstract Over the last couple of decades, the awareness of the potential health impacts associated with early-life exposures has increased. Global regulatory approaches to chemical risk assessment are intended to be protective for the diverse human population including all life stages. However, questions persist as to whether the current testing approaches and risk assessment methodologies are adequately protective for infants and children. Here, we review physiological and developmental differences that may result in differential sensitivity associated with early-life exposures. It is clear that sensitivity to chemical exposures during early-life can be similar, higher, or lower than that of adults, and can change quickly within a short developmental timeframe. Moreover, age-related exposure differences provide an important consideration for overall susceptibility. Differential sensitivity associated with a life stage can reflect the toxicokinetic handling of a xenobiotic exposure, the toxicodynamic response, or both. Each of these is illustrated with chemical-specific examples. The adequacy of current testing protocols, proposed new tools, and risk assessment methods for systemic noncancer endpoints are reviewed in light of the potential for differential risk to infants and young children.
In this paper, a method of low temperature pre-heating of sinusoidal alternating current (SAC) is proposed. Generally, the lower the frequency of the AC current, the higher the heat generation rate. Yet at low frequency, there is a risk of lithium-ion deposition during the half cycle of charging. This study develops a temperature-adaptive, deposition-free AC pre-heating method. a equivalent electric circuit(EEC) model is established to predict the heat generation rate and temperature status, whose parameters are calibrated from the EIS impedance measurements. The effects of current frequency and amplitude on the heating effect are investigated respectively. A multistep temperature-adaptive amplitude strategy is proposed and the cell can be heated from -20C to 5C within 509s at 100Hz frequency with this method.
We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.
Objectives: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the application of two advanced noise-reduction algorithms for dental micro-CT images and to implement a comparative analysis of the performance of new and current denoising algorithms. Methods: Denoising was performed using gaussian and median filters as the current filtering approaches and the block-matching and three-dimensional (BM3D) method and total variation method as the proposed new filtering techniques. The performance of the denoising methods was evaluated quantitatively using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), edge preserving index (EPI) and blurring indexes, as well as qualitatively using the double-stimulus continuous quality scale procedure. Results: The BM3D method had the best performance with regard to preservation of fine textural features (CNREdge), non-blurring of the whole image (blurring index), the clinical visual score in images with very fine features and the overall visual score for all types of images. On the other hand, the total variation method provided the best results with regard to smoothing of images in texture-free areas (CNRTex-free) and in preserving the edges and borders of image features (EPI). Conclusions: The BM3D method is the most reliable technique for denoising dental micro-CT images with very fine textural details, such as shallow enamel lesions, in which the preservation of the texture and fine features is of the greatest importance. On the other hand, the total variation method is the technique of choice for denoising images without very fine textural details in which the clinician or researcher is interested mainly in anatomical features and structural measurements. PMID:26764583
We are entering a new era of research where the latest scientific discoveries are often first reported online and are readily accessible by scientists worldwide. This rapid electronic dissemination of research breakthroughs has greatly accelerated the current pace in genomics and proteomics research. The race to the discovery of a gene or a drug has now become increasingly dependent on how quickly a scientist can scan through voluminous amount of information available online to construct the relevant picture (such as protein-protein interaction pathways) as it takes shape amongst the rapidly expanding pool of globally accessible biological data (e.g. GENBANK) and scientific literature (e.g. MEDLINE). We describe a prototype system for automatic pathway discovery from on-line text abstracts, combining technologies that (1) retrieve research abstracts from online sources, (2) extract relevant information from the free texts, and (3) present the extracted information graphically and intuitively. Our work demonstrates that this framework allows us to routinely scan online scientific literature for automatic discovery of knowledge, giving modern scientists the necessary competitive edge in managing the information explosion in this electronic age.
Leakage currents, tiny currents flowing from an everyday-life appliance through the body to the ground, can cause a non-adequate perception (called electrocutaneous sensation, ECS) or even pain and should be avoided. Safety standards for low-frequency range are based on experimental results of current thresholds of electrocutaneous sensations, which however show a wide range between about 50 μA (rms) and 1000 μA (rms). In order to be able to explain these differences, the perception threshold was measured repeatedly in experiments with test persons under identical experimental setup, but by means of different methods (measuring strategies), namely: direct adjustment, classical threshold as amperage of 50% perception probability, and confidence rating procedure of signal detection theory. The current is injected using a 1 cm2 electrode at the highly touch sensitive part of the index fingertip. These investigations show for the first time that the threshold of electrocutaneous sensations is influenced both by adaptation to the non-adequate stimulus and individual, emotional factors. Therefore, classical methods, on which the majority of the safety investigations are based, cannot be used to determine a leakage current threshold. The confidence rating procedure of the modern signal detection theory yields a value of 179.5 μA (rms) at 50 Hz power supply net frequency as the lower end of the 95% confidence range considering the variance in the investigated group. This value is expected to be free of adaptation influences, and is distinctly lower than the European limits and supports the stricter regulations of Canada and USA. PMID:17111461
Several fast methods for computing stellarator coil shapes are compared, including the classical NESCOIL procedure (Merkel 1987 Nucl. Fusion 27 867), its generalization using truncated singular value decomposition, and a Tikhonov regularization approach we call REGCOIL in which the squared current density is included in the objective function. Considering W7-X and NCSX geometries, and for any desired level of regularization, we find the REGCOIL approach simultaneously achieves lower surface-averaged and maximum values of both current density (on the coil winding surface) and normal magnetic field (on the desired plasma surface). This approach therefore can simultaneously improve the free-boundary reconstruction of the target plasma shape while substantially increasing the minimum distances between coils, preventing collisions between coils while improving access for ports and maintenance. The REGCOIL method also allows finer control over the level of regularization, it preserves convexity to ensure the local optimum found is the global optimum, and it eliminates two pathologies of NESCOIL: the resulting coil shapes become independent of the arbitrary choice of angles used to parameterize the coil surface, and the resulting coil shapes converge rather than diverge as Fourier resolution is increased. We therefore contend that REGCOIL should be used instead of NESCOIL for applications in which a fast and robust method for coil calculation is needed, such as when targeting coil complexity in fixed-boundary plasma optimization, or for scoping new stellarator geometries.