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The Exodus Project Group

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Elijah Rogers
Elijah Rogers

Ls Land Issue Ls Models 05 Meadow 25


L'Anse aux Meadows is a French-English name which can be translated as "Grassland Bay" (lit. "[the] bay with [the] grasslands").[11] How the village itself came to be named "L'Anse aux Meadows" is debated. One possibility is that "L'Anse aux Meadows" is a corruption of the French designation L'Anse aux Méduses, which means "Jellyfish Cove".[12][13][11] A more recent supposition is that the name derives from "L'Anse à la Médée" (Medea Cove")[14] the name it bears on an 1862 French naval chart. Whether Medea or Medusa, it is possible that the name refers to a French naval vessel.[15] The shift to "Meadows" from Méduses or Médée may have occurred because of folk etymology linking the name to the open landscape around the cove, with many meadows.[16]




Ls Land Issue Ls models 05 Meadow 25



Updates to the plans are underway in some coastal communities, and the Oregon Coastal Management Program is creating guidance for localities on estuary planning for a changing climate and rising seas. Future EMPs will also have to address new knowledge and issues that have emerged over the past 40 years, including the federal listing of endangered salmon; the role of forage fish; the decline of adjacent habitat; and the economic and ecological importance of eelgrass meadows, salt marsh, forested tidal wetlands, and other coastal habitats.


Healthy estuaries are key to clean water in the coastal zone. Tidal wetlands and marshes remove sediments and pollutants, providing high-quality refuge for juvenile fish, including commercially important species, especially salmon, that depend on clear, cool water.1 And eelgrass meadows help lessen the local effects of ocean acidification and low oxygen, known as hypoxia.2


In this study, we provide evidence that spatial structure is distinct even when species occur in well-mixed multispecies meadows, and we suggest that size-dependent plant traits have a strong influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical marine plant communities. This study offers a contrast from previous spatial models of seagrasses which have largely focused on monospecific temperate meadows.


Fine-scale drivers were considerably more difficult to identify because of the wide range in distances. However, the type of variogram models used is informative about patch characteristics. The exponential model in the along-shore (Table 3) indicates that patches have an irregular extent usually attributed to stochastic processes [48]. Irregular gap formation at this scale could have been caused by the grazing of mega fauna, sediment erosion and deposition both natural and caused by boat movement and anchoring, and surface runoff outlets from land which cause changes in salinity and nutrient input. In the across-shore direction, the spherical model provided the best fit. Thus, drivers in this direction resulted in species patches that were fairly regular.


In the across-shore direction, the depth gradient (light gradient) is a possible broad-scale driver. At the landward meadow edge where water depth is around 3 m, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) averages 37% of surface irradiance. The meadow slopes down gradually to around 10 m depth where PAR averages 15% of surface irradiance, beyond which no seagrasses occur [29]. Because Halophila spp and H. uninervis possess small rhizomes, they have small respiratory demands [49] and they do not integrate resources as well as larger species such as S. isoetifolium and C. serrulata [40], [50]. These are size-specific traits which result in small species having greater sensitivity to environmental changes that occur over the broad spatial scale, such as a reduction in light along a gradient of water depth. Light and seasonal environmental variability have previously been shown to affect resource availability for small species [51].


Bibliography A. Basic concepts and definitions B. ET equations C. ET and weather measurement D. Parameters in ET equations E. Crop parameters in PM equation F. Analysis of weather and ET data G. Crop evapotranspiration H. Crop coefficients I. Lengths of crop growth stages J. Effects of soil mulches K. Non-growing season evapotranspiration L. Soil water holding characteristics M. Rooting depths N. Salinity impacts on evapotranspiration O. Soil evaporation P. Factors affecting ETc Q. Soil water balance and irrigation scheduling R. General A. Basic concepts and definitionsAllen, R. G., Smith, M., Perrier, A., and Pereira, L. S. 1994a. An update for the definition of reference evapotranspiration. ICID Bulletin. 43(2). 1-34.Jensen, M. E., Burman, R. D., and Allen, R. G. (ed). 1990. Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practices No. 70., Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., New York, NY, 360 p.Monteith, J. L., 1965. 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In: California Irrigation Management Information System, Final Report, by R. Snyder, D. W. Henderson, Pruitt, W. O., and Dong, A. Calif. Dept. Water Resour. Contract. No. B53812. Land, Air and Water Resources Pap. 10013-A, Univ. Calif., Davis, III-36 to III-59.Gosse, G., Perrier, A., and Itier, B. 1977. Etude de l'évapotranspiration réelle d'une culture de blé dans le bassin parisien. Ann. Agron. 28(5): 521-541. (in French).Hargreaves, G. H. 1983. Discussion of 'Application of Penman wind function' by Cuenca, R. H. and Nicholson, M. J. J. Irrig. and Drain. Engrg., ASCE 109(2): 277-278.Hargreaves, G. L., Hargreaves, G. H., and Riley, J. P. 1985. Agricultural benefits for Senegal River Basin. J. Irrigation and Drainage Engr., ASCE 111: 113-124.Hashemi, F. and Habibian, M. T. 1979. Limitations of temperature based methods in estimating crop evapotranspiration in arid-zone agricultural development project. Agric. Meteorol. 20: 237-247.Hatfield, J. L. and Fuchs, M. 1990. 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